GoLS Groupe of Leading Subnational Governments toward Aichi Biodiversity Targets

Introduction of Partner Subnational Governments

Achieving co-existence between People and Nature in Aichi

Aichi has taken various measures toward realizing “Coexistence between people and nature” through collaboration of various stakeholders.
With this group, we wish to contribute to achieving the Aichi Biodiversity Targets by promoting actions of subnational governments.

About Aichi

  • Population: about 7.5 million
  • Area: 5,163?
  • GDP: about 350 billion dollars
  • Main industries: Motor vehicles, aeroplanes
  • Nature preservation zone: about 17.2% of the prefecture
  • Fauna and flora: 16,180 species

Aichi Prefecture is located in central Japan, with its southern coasts facing the Pacific Ocean. Its capital (and Japan’s third-largest city) Nagoya is located in the western part of the prefecture.
While Aichi is an industrial prefecture with the largest industrial shipment in Japan, the prefecture is aiming for a sustainable society with harmony between the economy and the environment.

Nature in Aichi

In Aichi, you can see a variety of landscapes including mountains, forests, satoyama*, farmlands, urban areas, wetlands, marshes, rivers and coasts.

Rice Terrace in Yotsuya

*Area between mountain foothills and arable flat land that has been developed through centuries of human activities including agricultural and forestry use.

Yahagi River
Star Magnolia

The Biodiversity Strategy 2020 of Aichi

~Toward achieving coexistence between human and nature~

In March 2013, Aichi Prefecture adopted the Biodiversity Strategy 2020 of Aichi as its Local Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (LBSAP) that takes into account Aichi’s local targets within the framework of the CBD Aichi Biodiversity Targets.

In consideration of the high concentration of industrial activities in the prefecture, the Biodiversity Strategy 2020 of Aichi is based on the Aichi Method, which aims to reconcile the economy with the environment.

Under the Aichi Method, various stakeholders in society, including citizens, business operators, NPOs and local governments jointly work toward common objectives, creating ecological networks while strengthening interpersonal relationships. Aichi Prefecture will take effective and urgent action to halt the loss of biodiversity by 2020 in its nine regions.

<Example of the efforts of the Ecological Network Councils>

Collaborative cultivation of seedlings to restore native forests

Seeds collected in the woods remaining on industrial sites are distributed to local residents and elementary schools. The seeds are then planted to grow into seedlings, which are re-planted on streets and in parks in local area.

wetland : 1960s
Landfilling to cultivation land and using as private agricultural land : 1970~2000
Restoration : 2013

The National Association of State’s Environment Authorities, Non-Profit

“The commitment is with the environment and with the life”

Integrated by:

  • 28, State Secretaries
  • 1, Environment’s Commission
  • 16, Environment’s Attorney
  • 1, Ecology’s Coordinations
  • 2, Ecology’s Institutes

ANAAE is a coordination and work board between environment’s state authorities with the purpose of sharing experiences, programs and actions for environmental development.

Mexico is one of the main mega-diverse countries in the world. With about 200 thousand different species, it’s home of 10 to 12% of the world’s biodiversity. At the same time it’s in 4th place in world’s flora, with 26,000 different species…

… It’s the 2nd country in the world in ecosystems and 4th place by the total species. (Because 2,500 species are protected by the Mexican laws)1

As a result of the vast natural wealth of Mexico, the ANAAE divided their task and efforts in 5 regions


The National Association of State’s Environment Authorities work towards creating strategic alliances, cooperation and exchange of experiences between Government and Civil Society, that promotes the exercise of environment governance, as the seminal point from which we can create public policies that contribute to halt the degradation and loss of biodiversity, to ensure and protect ecosystems, the risponsible use of our natural wealth and the fair distribution of environmental services, complying with the Aichi goals.
The environmental authorities in the country recognize the importance the biodiversity provides to the national development; so we fight for fair reorientation of resources to this area. In addition to strengthening the institutional capacities and mainstreaming the value of biodiversity in the government agenda, as a top priority.

The challenge of conservation: a very rich natural heritage in a small dynamic country

Catalonia bears the primary responsibility for stewardship, to deliver to future generations a highly diverse and rich natural heritage, the healthy and resilient ecosystems that are the very foundation of our social and economic wealth.
Being a small nation under significant human pressure, our Biodiversity Strategy addresses the need to find a proper balance between land use and economic activity while conserving the lanscape, natural resources and environmental services.


  • Population: 7.508.106 (NE of Spain)
  • Area: 32.108km2
  • Main ecosystems: forests and meadows (63%), crop lands (29%). Hilly lands with serveral mountain ranges; 580 km of coast with marine grounds.
  • Fauna and flora: over 30.000 species, 3.600 vascular plants, 441 birds, 41 continental fishes. Catalonia is a Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot.
  • Main pressures: 7 milions in 30% of the territory; intense industrial and agricultural activity; 20 milion tourists/year; dense and extense road infrastructure; 110 alien species.


Catalonia contains examples of different types of European landscape, on a small scale. In an area of little more than 30,000 km2 there is a wide variety of substrates, soils, climates, orientations, altitudes and distances from the sea. Combined, these elements provide Catalonia with great ecological diversity and a remarkable wealth of landscapes, habitats and species. There are over 600 types of natural and semi-natural habitats. 65% of the territory conserves a high degree of natural features and protected areas cover the 32% of the land.
We host vulnerable terrestrial and marine habitats, in greatest need of conservation, such as calcicolous grasslands, mixed deciduous forests on rocky, shady slopes and pedunculate oak forests. The marine habitats include rocky, infralittoral calcified trottoirs (pavements) of Lithophyllum byssoides and extense Posidonia oceanica submarine meadows. There are over 180 endangered or vulnerable species of flora, for which the distribution is known.
Long term monitoring programmes on biodiversity and the natural heritage make it possible to detect trends and also assist in decision making.

The response to the pressures has given rise to actions in the spheres of knowledge, conservation and the sustainable use of natural heritage.


  • We organise the information on natural heritage
  • We assess the components of natural heritage
  • We identify trends through monitoring programmes


  • We recover endangered species
  • We protect 32% of the territory
  • We restore degraded natural environments
  • We manage protected areas affected by human activity
  • We promote land stewardship

Sustainable use

  • We guarantee a sustainable land-use model
  • We change sector-based policies
  • Along with conservation, we promote new opportunities
  • We reinforce global climate change policies

Catalonia is very proactive in achieving the Aichi Targets, and has already different actions implemented in response to the CBD Strategy, such as:

Rising public awareness of the value of biodiversity: there is a growing social awareness on the issue and conservation of nature is a key issue for > 66% people
Integrated land-use planning: habitat conservation constitutes a key parameter for land-use planning, there is a Barcelona’s metropolitan land-use plan and a Coastal System Land-use Master Plan (2005)
Stregthening the Catalan natural protected areas system: protecting 32% of Catalonia and including European Natura 2000 sites
Promoting habitat restoration: there is a Green Infrastructure plan that includes degraded natural environments; especially in wetlands and coastal landscapes are being restored
Increasing knowledge on biodiversity: there is a Biodiversity Conservation and Monitoring Program (2009), a Catalan Bd Database (25000 sp) and long-term monitoring programmes
Envisaging a Fund for Biodiversity Conservation in the new Law on Natural Heritage and Biodiversity

‘Gangwon Province’ for Conservation of Nature, Harmony of Life and Peace

Gangwon Province established the ‘Biodiiversity Strategy in Gangwon Province’ as a action for the conservation, utilization of biodiversity and implementation of convention on biological diversity while organizing the CBDCOP12 in 2014. We are carrying out 67 major tasks of strategy by 2020 through cooperation with various stakeholders.

  • Population : about 1.56million
  • Area : 16,873.5?
  • Main ecosystems : Forests(82%), Lagoons, East coast with 314km of coastline, National Parks, Wetlands
  • Nature preservation zone : about 29.9% of the province
  • Fauna and flora : 5,353species

Gangwon Province is located in the eastern part of the Korean Peninsula and the second-largest province of Korea in size. Gangwon Province is a mountainous province and is usually divided into two areas, Yeongdong and Yeongseo. The eastern area, Yeongdong, is marked by steep slopes with coastal plains, while the western area, Yeongseo, is marked by gentle slopes and mountains containing the head water of some of Korea’s largest rivers. There are 18 cities and counties. Its capital is Chun-cheon city which is located in the western part of Gangwon Province.

Nature in Gangwon

Gangwon Province has three core national axes including the Baekdudaegan mountain system, the DMZ and the east coast as well as landscapes of karst areas and 269 wetlands.
It has also the largest number of endangered species in Korea.

Mt. Seoraksan National Park
(Oldest National park and First UNESCO biosphere reserve in Korea)
Daeamsan Yongneup Wetland
(National wetland and First Ramsar wetland in Korea)
Crane(natural monument), Promoting Biodiversity by allowing rice straw to remain after the harvest to provide food for migratory birds
DMZ (Ecological peace park)

Biodiversity Strategy in Gangwon Province

Gangwon Province successfully established “the Biodiversity Strategy” in December, 2014 through the investigation biodiversity, survey on residents’ awareness of biodiversity and expert working group consultation. The document aims at responding to Aichi Targets as well as sustainable use of ecosystem services and systematic preservation of biodiversity by implementing 6 core objectives and 18 targets.
The 6 core objectives are :

  1. Mainstreaming biodiversity
  2. Strengthening biodiversity conservation
  3. Reducing threats to biodiversity
  4. Sustainable use of ecosystem services
  5. Building research and management system for biodiversity
  6. Regional cooperation on biodiversity conservation

Restoration of endangered species- Aichi Target 12“Project of Gyeongpo Lake ”

In order to boost food production since 1970s, the wetland began to be landfilled to cultivation land and has been used as private agricultural land until restoration. The ecosystem was damaged by the water cycle interruption with surrounding lakes and use of pesticides during the period of cultivation. After restoration, Prickly water lily(endangered species) seeds which had been hidden for about 50 years, began to germinate naturally.

Germinating naturally of Prickly water lily
wetland : 1960s
Landfilling to cultivation land and using as private agricultural land : 1970~2000
Restoration : 2013

Restoration of ecosystem ? Aichi Target 15“Project of Misiryeong Pass ”

Misiryeong Pass is a national core ecological axis that connect to the DMZ as a part of the national park. Restoration is under way by establishing a project to restore damaged and disconnected ecological axes due to road and service area on the top of the ‘Misiryeong Pass after constructing a tunnel.

Before (Service area, parking lot )
After(currently restoring)

Protecting What Sustains Us

“Healthy ecosystems support healthy people, and we all have a responsibility to protect our rich and abundant biodiversity. That’s why Ontario remains committed to protecting our biodiversity and using our natural resources sustainably.
Working together with our partners ? governments, Indigenous communities, stakeholders and the public ? we continue to lead and implement important conservation actions.”

About Ontario

  • 13.5 million people
  • 1.076 million km2
  • 250,000 lakes (1/5 of world’s fresh water)
  • 6% of world’s wetlands
  • 11.2% parks and protected areas
  • 30,000 known species
  • More than 50% forested

Ontario’s Biodiversity

Ontario supports a wide range of ecosystems and associated species, from the Great Lakes and Carolinian forests in the south, to the Canadian Shield through much of the central portion of the province, to the tundra of the Hudson Bay Lowlands in the Far North. Ontario also supports globally rare ecosystem types (e.g., alvars) and several species whose global populations largely reside within the province (e.g., Muskellunge, Lakeside daisy). We proudly bear a global responsibility for their management and conservation.

Hudson Bay Coast
Southern Ontario
Killarney Provincial Park
Prickly Pear Cactus

Ontario’s Biodiversity Conservation Framework

Figure?1.?Ontario?s?Biodiversity?Strategy,?2011 ?vision,?goals,?strategic? directions?and?objectives.

Ontario?s?Biodiversity?Strategy,?2011?is?the?guiding?framework?for? ? conservation?of?Ontario?s?rich?biodiversity?over?the?next?decade.

Figure?2.?Actions?in?the?Ontario?Government?Implementation?Plan?for? Ontario?s?Biodiversity?Strategy,?2011


Source: Biodiversity: It’s In Our Nature 2012-2020

Ontario, Working Together To Advance Biodiversity Targets

Ontario’s Biodiversity Strategy is the strategic framework to advance the province’s biodiversity vision and goals. The strategy is based on working together ? within and across communities, organizations and sectors ? to attain mutually bene?cial goals and outcomes for biodiversity. It identi?es actions according to four strategic directions: Engage People, Reduce Threats, Enhance Resilience and Improve Knowledge.

To track progress, the strategy identi?es 15 biodiversity targets, modelled on the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. The State of Ontario’s Biodiversity 2015 report was released by the Ontario Biodiversity Council and provides an indication of Ontario’s progress toward its targets, as well as an assessment of the status and trends for 45 indicators.

The Ontario Biodiversity Council was created in 2005 to guide implementation of Ontario’s Biodiversity Strategy and report to the public on progress. The Council has 34 members from conservation and environmental groups, industry associations, Indigenous organizations, academia and governments. This broad membership embodies the spirit of mainstreaming biodiversity across sectors. All sectors, including government, are encouraged to develop implementation plans that identify speci?c actions they will take to advance Ontario’s Biodiversity Strategy. The Province of Ontario’s response to this call to action is Biodiversity: It’s In Our Nature, Ontario Government Plan to Conserve Biodiversity 2012-2020 setting out actions provincial ministries will take alone or in collaboration with others.


Quebec, which hosts the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, is among the subnational states and regions that have developed tools for conserving their biodiversity and meeting the Aichi Targets. Work aimed at protecting the riviere Kovik, one of our most recent actions in the ?eld of endeavour, was carried out in a sustainable development perspective and in close conjunction with local aboriginal communities.

About Quebec

  • Population: 8,2 millions
  • Area : 1.7 million km2
  • Fauna and ?ora: more than 41367 species

Quebec is the largest province of Canada in size and the second-largest in terms of population. Its capital is Quebec City. Quebec is characterized by the immensity of its land mass, its forests that extend over more than half of its area, its countless lakes and rivers and major mineral resources, as well as the St. Lawrence River.

The Quebec networkof protected areas

Quebec’s ecological reference framework: an effective conservation tool

Among its other uses, this mapping and territorial ecological classi?cation tool identi?es territories that need priority protection and allows a validation of the e?ciency of the network of protected areas to con?rm that it is representative of Quebec’s ecosystems.

Ambitious conservation targets for Northern regions

Under the vast program of the Plan Nord, for the sustainable development and progress of Northern Quebec, Quebec has set ambitious conservation targets that will enable it to achieve Aichi Target 11 for protected areas.

These statistics include areas for which legal designation is pending. The protected marine area target stems from Quebec’s Maritime Strategy for 2030.

A regional planning measure based on consultation

Since 2010 in all of Quebec’s regions, protected area planning has been conducted in close collaboration with local and regional stakeholders. This process allows Quebec to make sure that it’s planning is e?cient, representative and socially acceptable in planning the network of protected areas.

Protection of the riviere Kovik in Nunavik

Photo:Catherine Pinard - ARK

A river that is central to the conservation priorities of Northern communities

In 2011 and 2012, protected areas were the subject of a massive consultation held with Nunavik communities. The report of the consultation clearly states that the riviere Kovik and its watershed need priority protection because the region’s aboriginal population carries out traditional activities there and depends on it for the Arctic Char resource, which is a fundamental part of its diet.

In the spring of 2015, Quebec announced the creation of the 4,651 squarekilometre, proposed Riviere-Kovik aquatic reserve, within which all industrial activity was immediately prohibited.

Photo:Catherine Pinard - ARK
Photo:Melanie Veilleux-Nolin - MDDELCC

A sustainable development model

Thanks to a full year of co-operation among the area’s stakeholders, the ?nal design for the proposed Riviere-Kovik aquatic reserve incorporated a wide variety of environmental, social and economic interests, making the project an example of sustainable development.

Varied conservation interests

In addition to protecting an Arctic Char population that is essential to traditional aboriginal ?shing practices, the reserve shows remarkable traces of past use by the Inuit and the peoples that preceded them. The reserve is also located in the calving area of the riviere aux Feuilles caribou herd and contains rare plant species.

Photo: Melanie Veilleux-Nolin - MDDELCC
Photo: Melanie Veilleux-Nolin - MDDELCC
Photo: Melanie Veilleux-Nolin - MDDELCC
Photo: Catherine Pinard - ARK

Partnerships towards biodiversity protection

To concretely advance in environmental issues, interests of diverse partners must be harmonized, without forgetting the economic and social aspects of sustainable development. To mainstream biodiversity, innovative solutions and renewed commitment have to be fostered by the government, counting the with private sector and civil society as important allies. Sao Paulo is joining e?orts to, in this way, advance in the implementation of its BSAP.

About the State of Sao Paulo

  • Population: 42 million
  • Area: 250,000 km2
  • Economic activity: 35% of industrial production and 34% of services o?ered by the Brazilian market;
  • Territory under environmental protection: 18%.

The State of Sao Paulo is recognized as the largest economic and industrial hub in South America. Today the state is the 19th largest economy in the world and the 2nd largest in South America. When compared with other regions in the world, it is the 7th wealthiest, generating about a third of Brazil’s GDP.

Nature in Sao Paulo

The State of Sao Paulo is home to two important biomes: the Atlantic Forest, which comprises around 15,000 species of plants and more than 5% of the world's vertebrate species, and the Cerrado, known as the richest Savannah of the world in terms of biodiversity. In addition, Sao Paulo also has important biodiversity hotspots, such as the Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve, with an area of 78 million hectares recognized by UNESCO for its unique biological richness. Up to now, Sao Paulo is one of the only states of Brazil which has been able to reverse the deforestation process, through regulation and inspection, solid restoration projects and bold initiatives both with civil society and the private sector.
Today, 18% of our territory is under environmental protection, be it through large and small conservation units, areas of permanent protection or legal reserves.
Currently, our main challenge is focused on enhancing management of these protected areas, through sound public administration and counting with the aid of external partnerships.
For more information about the work carried out in Sao Paulo please access:

Ze-Bedeu Waterfall at the Itariru core of the Serra do Mar State Park. Photo: Lucas Cuervo
Saira- military (male) - Photo: Miguel Nema

Sao Paulo Biodiversity Action Plan 2011-2020

The State of Sao Paulo has had a strong presence in the biodiversity discussions since 1986, when the State Secretariat for the Environment (acronym SMA in Portuguese) was created. In 2011, the Sao Paulo Biodiversity Commission was established, approving the "Sao Paulo Action Plan 20112020“ towards the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity and, speci?cally, its Aichi Targets.

Initially designed with seven front actions, the Sao Paulo Action Plan was recently updated in line with the CBD Biodiversity Targets. These changes re?ect the knowledge gained after the ?rst years of implementation e?orts, mainly adapting itself to new action opportunities.

Through the Sao Paulo Action Plan we aim to promote synergies between the activities carried out by Sao Paulo and the many biodiversity initiatives at various levels (such as international, national and municipal), as well as by private institutions. Our goal is to encounter e?ective results regarding the achievement of the CBD’s objectives.

Nascentes Program

Conceived in 2014, at the peak of the water shortage in the southeast of Brazil, this is the largest initiative ever launched by the Government of the State of Sao Paulo to maintain and restore riparian forests.“ Nascentes” means“ springs” in Portuguese, and this program has the objective of restoring 20 thousand hectares of riparian forests. Integrating 12 State Secretariats, the program also includes several stakeholders, such as restoration specialists, entrepreneurs, the academic sector, civil society and landowners in need of restoring vegetation on their property.

Less than two years after its inception, the Program has a solid operational structure. 1,084 hectares were already restored (the equivalent to 1,512 soccer ?elds) and 1.8 million seedlings were planted within the state.

Water increase is already perceptible Photo: Diario O?cial de Sao Paulo
Seedlings to be planted in Piracaia / Sao Paulo