Achieving co-existence between People and Nature in Aichi
Aichi has taken various measures toward realizing “Coexistence between people and
nature” through collaboration of various stakeholders.
With this group, we wish to contribute to achieving the Aichi Biodiversity Targets by
promoting actions of subnational governments.
Population: about 7.5 million
GDP: about 350 billion dollars
Main industries: Motor vehicles, aeroplanes
Nature preservation zone: about 17.2% of the prefecture
Fauna and flora: 16,180 species
Aichi Prefecture is located in central Japan, with its southern coasts facing the Pacific Ocean.
Its capital (and Japan’s third-largest city) Nagoya is located in the western part of the
While Aichi is an industrial prefecture with the largest industrial shipment in Japan, the
prefecture is aiming for a sustainable society with harmony between the economy and the
Nature in Aichi
In Aichi, you can see a variety of landscapes including mountains, forests, satoyama*,
farmlands, urban areas, wetlands, marshes, rivers and coasts.
＊Area between mountain foothills and arable flat land that has been developed through
centuries of human activities including agricultural and forestry use.
The Biodiversity Strategy 2020 of Aichi
～Toward achieving coexistence between human and nature～
In March 2013, Aichi Prefecture adopted the Biodiversity Strategy 2020 of Aichi as its
Local Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (LBSAP) that takes into account Aichi’s
local targets within the framework of the CBD Aichi Biodiversity Targets.
In consideration of the high concentration of industrial activities in the prefecture,
the Biodiversity Strategy 2020 of Aichi is based on the Aichi Method, which aims to
reconcile the economy with the environment.
Under the Aichi Method, various stakeholders in society, including citizens, business
operators, NPOs and local governments jointly work toward common objectives, creating
ecological networks while strengthening interpersonal relationships. Aichi Prefecture
will take effective and urgent action to halt the loss of biodiversity by 2020 in its
＜Example of the efforts of the Ecological Network Councils＞
Collaborative cultivation of seedlings to restore native forests
Seeds collected in the woods remaining on industrial sites are distributed to local
residents and elementary schools. The seeds are then planted to grow into seedlings,
which are re-planted on streets and in parks in local area.
The National Association of State’s Environment Authorities, Non-Profit
“The commitment is with the environment and with the life”
28, State Secretaries
1, Environment’s Commission
16, Environment’s Attorney
1, Ecology’s Coordinations
2, Ecology’s Institutes
ANAAE is a coordination and work board between environment’s state authorities with the
purpose of sharing experiences, programs and actions for environmental development.
Mexico is one of the main mega-diverse countries in the world. With about 200 thousand
different species, it’s home of 10 to 12% of the world’s biodiversity. At the same time
it’s in 4th place in world’s flora, with 26,000 different species…
… It’s the 2nd country in the world in ecosystems and 4th place by the total species.
(Because 2,500 species are protected by the Mexican laws)1
As a result of the vast natural wealth of Mexico, the ANAAE divided their task and
efforts in 5 regions
The National Association of State’s Environment Authorities work towards creating strategic
alliances, cooperation and exchange of experiences between Government and Civil Society,
that promotes the exercise of environment governance, as the seminal point from which we can
create public policies that contribute to halt the degradation and loss of biodiversity, to
ensure and protect ecosystems, the risponsible use of our natural wealth and the fair
distribution of environmental services, complying with the Aichi goals.
The environmental authorities in the country recognize the importance the biodiversity
provides to the national development; so we fight for fair reorientation of resources to
this area. In addition to strengthening the institutional capacities and mainstreaming the
value of biodiversity in the government agenda, as a top priority.
The challenge of conservation: a very rich natural heritage in a small dynamic
Catalonia bears the primary responsibility for stewardship, to deliver to future
generations a highly diverse and rich natural heritage, the healthy and resilient
ecosystems that are the very foundation of our social and economic wealth.
Being a small nation under significant human pressure, our Biodiversity Strategy
addresses the need to find a proper balance between land use and economic activity while
conserving the lanscape, natural resources and environmental services.
Population: 7.508.106 (NE of Spain)
Main ecosystems: forests and meadows (63%), crop lands (29%). Hilly lands with serveral
mountain ranges; 580 km of coast with marine grounds.
Fauna and flora: over 30.000 species, 3.600 vascular plants, 441 birds, 41 continental
fishes. Catalonia is a Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot.
Main pressures: 7 milions in 30% of the territory; intense industrial and agricultural
activity; 20 milion tourists/year; dense and extense road infrastructure; 110 alien species.
NATURE IN CATALONIA
Catalonia contains examples of different types of European landscape, on a small scale.
In an area of little more than 30,000 km2 there is a wide variety of substrates, soils,
climates, orientations, altitudes and distances from the sea. Combined, these elements
provide Catalonia with great ecological diversity and a remarkable wealth of landscapes,
habitats and species. There are over 600 types of natural and semi-natural habitats. 65%
of the territory conserves a high degree of natural features and protected areas cover
the 32% of the land.
We host vulnerable terrestrial and marine habitats, in greatest need of conservation,
such as calcicolous grasslands, mixed deciduous forests on rocky, shady slopes and
pedunculate oak forests. The marine habitats include rocky, infralittoral calcified
trottoirs (pavements) of Lithophyllum byssoides and extense Posidonia oceanica submarine
meadows. There are over 180 endangered or vulnerable species of flora, for which the
distribution is known.
Long term monitoring programmes on biodiversity and the natural heritage make it
possible to detect trends and also assist in decision making.
The response to the pressures has given rise to actions in the spheres of knowledge,
conservation and the sustainable use of natural heritage.
We organise the information on natural heritage
We assess the components of natural heritage
We identify trends through monitoring programmes
We recover endangered species
We protect 32% of the territory
We restore degraded natural environments
We manage protected areas affected by human activity
We promote land stewardship
We guarantee a sustainable land-use model
We change sector-based policies
Along with conservation, we promote new opportunities
We reinforce global climate change policies
Catalonia is very proactive in achieving the Aichi Targets, and has already different actions
implemented in response to the CBD Strategy, such as:
Rising public awareness of the value of biodiversity: there is a growing social awareness on
the issue and conservation of nature is a key issue for > 66% people
Integrated land-use planning: habitat conservation constitutes a key parameter for land-use
planning, there is a Barcelona’s metropolitan land-use plan and a Coastal System Land-use
Master Plan (2005)
Stregthening the Catalan natural protected areas system: protecting 32% of Catalonia and
including European Natura 2000 sites
Promoting habitat restoration: there is a Green Infrastructure plan that includes degraded
natural environments; especially in wetlands and coastal landscapes are being restored
Increasing knowledge on biodiversity: there is a Biodiversity Conservation and Monitoring
Program (2009), a Catalan Bd Database (25000 sp) and long-term monitoring programmes
Envisaging a Fund for Biodiversity Conservation in the new Law on Natural Heritage and
‘Gangwon Province’ for Conservation of Nature, Harmony of Life and Peace
Gangwon Province established the ‘Biodiiversity Strategy in Gangwon Province’ as a
action for the conservation, utilization of biodiversity and implementation of
convention on biological diversity while organizing the CBDCOP12 in 2014. We are
carrying out 67 major tasks of strategy by 2020 through cooperation with various
Population : about 1.56million
Area : 16,873.5㎢
Main ecosystems : Forests(82%), Lagoons, East coast with 314km of coastline,
National Parks, Wetlands
Nature preservation zone : about 29.9% of the province
Fauna and flora : 5,353species
Gangwon Province is located in the eastern part of the Korean Peninsula and the second-largest
province of Korea in size. Gangwon Province is a mountainous province and is usually divided
into two areas, Yeongdong and Yeongseo. The eastern area, Yeongdong, is marked by steep slopes
with coastal plains, while the western area, Yeongseo, is marked by gentle slopes and mountains
containing the head water of some of Korea’s largest rivers. There are 18 cities and counties.
Its capital is Chun-cheon city which is located in the western part of Gangwon Province.
Nature in Gangwon
Gangwon Province has three core national axes including the Baekdudaegan mountain system, the
DMZ and the east coast as well as landscapes of karst areas and 269 wetlands. It has also
the largest number of endangered species in Korea.
Biodiversity Strategy in Gangwon Province
Gangwon Province successfully established “the Biodiversity Strategy” in December, 2014 through
the investigation biodiversity, survey on residents’ awareness of biodiversity and expert
working group consultation. The document aims at responding to Aichi Targets as well as
sustainable use of ecosystem services and systematic preservation of biodiversity by
implementing 6 core objectives and 18 targets. The 6 core objectives are :
Strengthening biodiversity conservation
Reducing threats to biodiversity
Sustainable use of ecosystem services
Building research and management system for biodiversity
Regional cooperation on biodiversity conservation
Restoration of endangered species- Aichi Target 12“Project of Gyeongpo Lake ”
In order to boost food production since 1970s, the wetland began to be landfilled to
cultivation land and has been used as private agricultural land until restoration.
The ecosystem was damaged by the water cycle interruption with surrounding lakes and
use of pesticides during the period of cultivation. After restoration, Prickly water
lily(endangered species) seeds which had been hidden for about 50 years, began to
Restoration of ecosystem – Aichi Target 15“Project of Misiryeong Pass ”
Misiryeong Pass is a national core ecological axis that connect to the DMZ as a
part of the national park. Restoration is under way by establishing a project to restore
damaged and disconnected ecological axes due to road and service area on the top of the
‘Misiryeong Pass after constructing a tunnel.
Protecting What Sustains Us
“Healthy ecosystems support healthy people, and we all have a responsibility to protect
our rich and abundant biodiversity. That’s why Ontario remains committed to protecting
our biodiversity and using our natural resources sustainably.
Working together with our partners ‒ governments, Indigenous communities, stakeholders
and the public ‒ we continue to lead and implement important conservation actions.”
13.5 million people
1.076 million km2
250,000 lakes (1/5 of world’s fresh water)
6% of world’s wetlands
11.2% parks and protected areas
30,000 known species
More than 50% forested
Ontario supports a wide range of ecosystems and associated species, from the Great Lakes
and Carolinian forests in the south, to the Canadian Shield through much of the central
portion of the province, to the tundra of the Hudson Bay Lowlands in the Far North.
Ontario also supports globally rare ecosystem types (e.g., alvars) and several species
whose global populations largely reside within the province (e.g., Muskellunge, Lakeside
daisy). We proudly bear a global responsibility for their management and conservation.
Figure 2. Actions in the Ontario Government Implementation Plan for
Ontarioʼs Biodiversity Strategy, 2011
Source: Biodiversity: It’s In Our Nature 2012-2020
Ontario, Working Together To Advance Biodiversity Targets
Ontario’s Biodiversity Strategy is the strategic framework to advance the province’s
biodiversity vision and goals. The strategy is based on working together ‒ within and across
communities, organizations and sectors ‒ to attain mutually beneﬁcial goals and outcomes for
biodiversity. It identiﬁes actions according to four strategic directions: Engage People, Reduce
Threats, Enhance Resilience and Improve Knowledge.
To track progress, the strategy identiﬁes 15 biodiversity targets, modelled on the Aichi
Biodiversity Targets. The State of Ontario’s Biodiversity 2015 report was released by the
Ontario Biodiversity Council and provides an indication of Ontario’s progress toward its
targets, as well as an assessment of the status and trends for 45 indicators.
The Ontario Biodiversity Council was created in 2005 to guide implementation of Ontario’s
Biodiversity Strategy and report to the public on progress. The Council has 34 members from
conservation and environmental groups, industry associations, Indigenous organizations, academia
and governments. This broad membership embodies the spirit of mainstreaming biodiversity across
sectors. All sectors, including government, are encouraged to develop implementation plans that
identify speciﬁc actions they will take to advance Ontario’s Biodiversity Strategy. The Province
of Ontario’s response to this call to action is Biodiversity: It’s In Our Nature, Ontario
Government Plan to Conserve Biodiversity 2012-2020 setting out actions provincial ministries
will take alone or in collaboration with others.
Québec, which hosts the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, is among
the subnational states and regions that have developed tools for conserving their
biodiversity and meeting the Aichi Targets. Work aimed at protecting the rivière Kovik,
one of our most recent actions in the ﬁeld of endeavour, was carried out in a
sustainable development perspective and in close conjunction with local aboriginal
Population: 8,2 millions
Area : 1.7 million km2
Fauna and ﬂora: more than 41367 species
Québec is the largest province of Canada in size and the second-largest in terms of
population. Its capital is Québec City. Québec is characterized by the immensity of its
land mass, its forests that extend over more than half of its area, its countless lakes
and rivers and major mineral resources, as well as the St. Lawrence River.
The Québec networkof protected areas
Québec’s ecological reference framework: an effective conservation tool
Among its other uses, this mapping and territorial ecological classiﬁcation tool
identiﬁes territories that need priority protection and allows a validation of the
eﬃciency of the network of protected areas to conﬁrm that it is representative of
Ambitious conservation targets for Northern regions
Under the vast program of the Plan Nord, for the sustainable development and progress of
Northern Québec, Québec has set ambitious conservation targets that will enable it to
achieve Aichi Target 11 for protected areas.
A regional planning measure based on consultation
Since 2010 in all of Québec’s regions, protected area planning has been conducted in
close collaboration with local and regional stakeholders. This process allows Québec to
make sure that it’s planning is eﬃcient, representative and socially acceptable in
planning the network of protected areas.
Protection of the rivière Kovik in Nunavik
A river that is central to the conservation priorities of Northern communities
In 2011 and 2012, protected areas were the subject of a massive consultation held with
Nunavik communities. The report of the consultation clearly states that the rivière
Kovik and its watershed need priority protection because the region’s aboriginal
population carries out traditional activities there and depends on it for the Arctic
Char resource, which is a fundamental part of its diet.
In the spring of 2015, Québec announced the creation of the 4,651 squarekilometre, proposed
Rivière-Kovik aquatic reserve, within which all industrial activity was immediately prohibited.
A sustainable development model
Thanks to a full year of co-operation among the area’s stakeholders, the ﬁnal design for
the proposed Rivière-Kovik aquatic reserve incorporated a wide variety of environmental,
social and economic interests, making the project an example of sustainable development.
Varied conservation interests
In addition to protecting an Arctic Char population that is essential to traditional
aboriginal ﬁshing practices, the reserve shows remarkable traces of past use by the
Inuit and the peoples that preceded them. The reserve is also located in the calving
area of the rivière aux Feuilles caribou herd and contains rare plant species.
Partnerships towards biodiversity protection
To concretely advance in environmental issues, interests of diverse partners must be
harmonized, without forgetting the economic and social aspects of sustainable
development. To mainstream biodiversity, innovative solutions and renewed commitment
have to be fostered by the government, counting the with private sector and civil
society as important allies. São Paulo is joining eﬀorts to, in this way, advance in the
implementation of its BSAP.
About the State of São Paulo
Population: 42 million
Area: 250,000 km²
Economic activity: 35% of industrial production and 34% of services oﬀered by the
Territory under environmental protection: 18%.
The State of São Paulo is recognized as the largest economic and industrial hub in South
America. Today the state is the 19th largest economy in the world and the 2nd largest in
South America. When compared with other regions in the world, it is the 7th wealthiest,
generating about a third of Brazil’s GDP.
Nature in São Paulo
The State of São Paulo is home to two important biomes: the Atlantic Forest, which comprises
around 15,000 species of plants and more than 5% of the world's vertebrate species, and the
Cerrado, known as the richest Savannah of the world in terms of biodiversity. In addition, São
Paulo also has important biodiversity hotspots, such as the Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve,
with an area of 78 million hectares recognized by UNESCO for its unique biological richness. Up
to now, São Paulo is one of the only states of Brazil which has been able to reverse the
deforestation process, through regulation and inspection, solid restoration projects and bold
initiatives both with civil society and the private sector.
Today, 18% of our territory is under environmental protection, be it through large and small
conservation units, areas of permanent protection or legal reserves.
Currently, our main challenge is focused on enhancing management of these protected areas,
through sound public administration and counting with the aid of external partnerships.
For more information about the work carried out in São Paulo please access:
São Paulo Biodiversity Action Plan 2011-2020
The State of São Paulo has had a strong presence in the biodiversity discussions since 1986, when the State Secretariat for the Environment (acronym SMA in Portuguese) was created. In 2011, the São Paulo Biodiversity Commission was established, approving the "São Paulo Action Plan 20112020“ towards the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity and, speciﬁcally, its Aichi Targets.
Initially designed with seven front actions, the São Paulo Action Plan was recently updated in line with the CBD Biodiversity Targets. These changes reﬂect the knowledge gained after the ﬁrst years of implementation eﬀorts, mainly adapting itself to new action opportunities.
Through the São Paulo Action Plan we aim to promote synergies between the activities carried out by São Paulo and the many biodiversity initiatives at various levels (such as international, national and municipal), as well as by private institutions. Our goal is to encounter eﬀective results regarding the achievement of the CBD’s objectives.
Conceived in 2014, at the peak of the water shortage in the southeast of Brazil, this is the largest initiative ever launched by the Government of the State of São Paulo to maintain and restore riparian forests.“ Nascentes” means“ springs” in Portuguese, and this program has the objective of restoring 20 thousand hectares of riparian forests. Integrating 12 State Secretariats, the program also includes several stakeholders, such as restoration specialists, entrepreneurs, the academic sector, civil society and landowners in need of restoring vegetation on their property.
Less than two years after its inception, the Program has a solid operational structure. 1,084 hectares were already restored (the equivalent to 1,512 soccer ﬁelds) and 1.8 million seedlings were planted within the state.